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Promoting Church’s Active Role in Public Sphere

사미도라이

 

Sinapan Samydorai

Introduction

 

Today migration is on top of the agenda in ASEAN (Association of South-east Asian Nation) member states and other Asia countries as millions of workers cross borders to seek decent work and better living conditions for themselves and their families.

In 2010, there are over 214 million migrants worldwide (3% of the world’s population), 50 % were women, and 90% were migrant workers (those who migrant for work) and their families, according to the ILO Reports. In 2010, about 105 million migrants were economically active.  Most migrant workers come from developing countries and they remit over (US$338 billion in 2008). But many migrant workers do not enjoy decent work, as they suffer from low wages, unsafe working environments, non-payment of wages, a virtual absence of social protection, denial of freedom of association and workers’ rights, discrimination and xenophobia.
Economic globalization and the disparities are causing thousands of people to leave their homes every day to earn a living in more developed countries. The needs of the poor are many but without money they have no access to the basic goods and services they desire, as they do not have a job to earn their living and they are forced to migrant in search of work. Many are forced to accept lower salaries, longer working hours, poor health and safety at work to survive. Migrant workers have fewer protection and its worse during economic crisis. The trade unions and most worker organizations are weak. The Asian economic crisis had made victims of millions of immigrant workers as they are the first to be retrenched and send home to join the ranks of the unemployed.

The Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their families, adopted by the United Nations in 1990, came into force in January 2003. The Convention adopted by the General Assembly in 1990 enters into force when it is ratified by at least 20 states. With the ratification by East Timor [December 2002], the critical threshold of 20 signatures has been crossed. It opens up better perspectives for migrant workers throughout the world, who are frequently subjected to intolerable forms of abuse.

The framework of rights to migrants is summarized in the Convention including rights to civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. The Convention also takes into account all the aspects of the migration process so as to protect effectively the victims of abuses in countries of origins, transit and destination, be they regular or irregular, documented or undocumented. The Convention will play an important role in preventing and eradicating exploitation, trafficking and smuggling of migrants.

The Convention established some obligation for States vis a vis migrants as individuals. It also provides for the States to cooperate in the formulation of migration policies and in combating irregular migration; to provide information to employers, workers and their organizations about policies, laws and regulations relating to migration; and to provide assistance to migrant workers and their families.

In 2007, the ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the rights of the migrant workers is signed by all ten member states. The ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour is convened annually as a platform for broad-based discussions on migrant labour issues and the implementation of the ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers. The Forum is participated by representatives of the governments, employers’ organizations, workers’ organisations, and civil society organisations from ASEAN Member States, the ASEAN Secretariat, International Labour Organization (ILO), International Organization for Migration (IOM), United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women

(UN Women), and the Task Force for ASEAN Migrant Workers (TFAMW).

Church and Work

 

“I will dwell among you to do justice and demand the immediate punishment of those ….. who oppress the wage earner, the widow and the orphan, who do not respect the right of the foreigner. They do all this and have no fear of me” Yahweh said. [Mal 3:5] The Church is concern, as  “the Church considers it her task always to call attention to the dignity and rights of those who work, to condemn situations in which that dignity and those rights are violated, and to help guide the above mentioned  changes as to ensure authentic progress by man (women) and society.” [Laborem Exercens  No.1 – On Human Work, 1981]

The mission of the Church involves defending and promoting the dignity and fundamental rights of human persons.[ Justice in the World No. 37, 1971]  “In order to achieve social justice … there is a need for new movements of solidarity of the workers and with workers. This solidarity must be present whenever it is called for by the social degrading of the subject of work, by exploitation of the workers and by the growing areas of poverty and even hunger.” [Laborem Exercens  No.8] As People of God, lay persons are encouraged to take up as their proper task the renewal of the temporal order. It belongs to the laity, without waiting passively for orders and directives, to take the initiative freely and to infuse a Christian spirit into the mentality, customs, laws and structures of the community in which they live. [Octogesima  Adveniens No.48 – A Call to Action, 1971]

“The teachings in regard to social matters for the most part are put into effect in the following three stages: first, the actual situation is examined; then the situation is evaluated carefully in relation to these teachings; then only is it decided what can and should be done in order that the traditional norms may be adapted to circumstances of time and place. These three steps are at times expressed by the three words; See Judge, Act. [Mater et Magistra – Christianity and Social Progress, 1961]

Our Christian perspective on dignity and rights of workers highlights that the value of work “is not primarily the kind of work being done but the fact that the one who is doing it is a person,” who is a conscious and free subject  and whose work must serve to realize his humanity, to fulfill his calling to be a person. Work is “for man”  and not man “for work.‘ [Laborem Exercens  No.6]

In the context of industrialization and globalization, the focus is on high productivity and economic growth, the worker becomes alienated as a mere digit of economic growth and work becomes a commodity. The Church is against all forms of alienation of  work and the worker. Pope Pius XI was against employers treating workers as mere tools ” …. So bodily labour .. is in many instances changed into an instrument of perversion, for from the factory dead matter goes out improved, whereas men, there (in factories) are corrupted and degraded …” [Quadragesimo Anno No.137 – Reconstruction of the Social Order 1931]  Pope Pius was against treating  work as commodity “Labour … is not a mere chattel, the human dignity of the working-man must be recognized in it, and consequently it cannot be bought and sold like any piece of merchandise.” [Quadragesimo Anno No.84] Furthermore, Pope Pius condemn exploitation of  workers “worst still, there are those who, out of greed for gain, do not fear to oppress workers. Indeed there are some who even abuse religion iteself, trying to cloak their own unjust impositions under its name, that they may protect themselves against the manifest just protest of their employees. We shall never desist from gravely censuring such conduct.’ [Quadragesimo Anno No.125]

 

Pope John Paul observes a contradiction between labour and capital. These contradiction exist as “workers put their powers at the disposal of the entrepreneurs, and these, following the principle of maximum profit, tried to establish the lowest possible wages for the work done by the employees. In addition, there were other elements of exploitation, connected with the lack of safety at work and the safeguards regarding the health and living conditions of the wokers and their families.” [Laborem Exercens  No.11] Moreover, the Church’s  principle of the priority of labour over capital “concerns the process of production, in this process labours is always a primary efficient cause, while capital, the whole collection of means of production, remains a mere isntrument of instrumental cause.” [Laborem Exercens No.12]  “Everything  contained in the concept of capital in the strict sense is only a collection of things. Man as the subject of work, and independently of the work that he does – man alone is a person.”  Therefore, capital is simply an instrument which is to be at the service of the human person – the worker. [Laborem Exercens No.13]

                  

                    Church’s Concern for migrant workers
“When an alien lives with you in your land, do not mistreat him. The alien living with you must be treated as one of your native-born. Love him as yourself, for you were aliens in Egypt.” Leviticus 19:33-34 [Old Testament]. The New Testament, tell us that [Matthew 8:20]  Jesus was born in a manger, Mary and Joseph took refugee in Egypt to escape prosecution from Herod, and later became a  preacher. Parable of the Good Samaritan [John 4:1-30] teaches how to show concern towards a stranger in need. The Catholic Church’s concern for migrants is revealed in Catholic social teachings, in encyclical letters, and in ecumenical council documents.

The issue of migration is link to social development.  There is urgent need to advocate for the rights of migrants and their families to ensure a dignified and decent working and living condition. The Encyclical Gaudium.et Spes, no.66 express that there should be no discrimination in wages and working conditions of migrant workers. They contribute to economic development. Migrant workers should not be treated as mere tools of production but as persons with families.

The Church respects the person’s dignity, rights, and responsibility to participate in civil society.
Pope John Paul II has deal with the working condition of migrant workers in his encyclical on human work or “Laborem Exercens”. The Pope recognize that people have a right to immigrant. The pope also highlighted the need for legislation to secure the emigrants’ rights, to bring benefit to the emigrant’s personal, family and social life. The Pope express that “emigration in search of work must in no way become an opportunity for financial or social exploitation.”   Thus, the Pope advocates for workers rights and decent working conditions.

The core principle express in the encyclical Laborem Exercens: “values and the profound meaning of work itself require that capital should be at the service of labour and not labour at the service of capital.”

“The closing of borders is often caused not merely by a reduced or no longer existing need for immigrant work-force, but by a production system based on the logic of labor exploitation.  Until recently, the wealth of the industrialized countries was locally produced, with the contribution of numerous immigrants. With the displacement of capital and business activities, a major part of that wealth is now produced in developing countries, where cheap labor is available. In this way, the industrialized societies have discovered how to benefit from a cheap labor supply without having to bear the burden of immigrants. Thus, these workers run the risk of being reduced to new “serfs” bound to movable capital which, among the many situations of poverty, chooses from one time to the next those circumstances where manpower is cheapest. It is clear that such a system is unacceptable; in fact, it practically ignores the human dimension of work.” Pope John Paul said at the Fourth World Congress on the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People (Vatican City, 5-10 October 1998)

The Pope in his annual Message for World Migration Day voiced the Church’s concern:

  • draws attention to the difficult situation of undocumented immigrants, and added that “their adaptation to conditions of hardship is a further confirmation of the humiliating situation to which poverty reduces them in their country.” Message for World Migration Day, 1992.
  • links increasing numbers of migrant and the “growing gap in the economic, social and political resources between the rich nations and the poor ones…” Message for World Migration Day, 1992.

 

  • problems faced by immigrant families, “the phenomenon of migration has in fact a considerable effect on the family nucleus.” Message for World Migration Day, 1994.
  • ” need to guarantee women equal treatment, both with regard to remuneration as well as to working conditions and security.” Message for World Migration Day, 1995.
  • “the Church’s commitment to migrants and refugees cannot be reduced merely to organizing structures of hospitality and solidarity” as he called both for acts of charity and for acts of witnessing to Christ. Message for World Migration Day, 1996.
  • “For the Christian, acceptance of and solidarity with the stranger are not only a human duty of hospitality but a precise demand of fidelity itself to Christ’s teaching.” Message for World Migration Day, 1997.
  • “the presence of migrants challenges the responsibility of believers as individuals and as a community… as a parish…” Message for World Migration Day, 1999.

Catholics are expected to extend hospitality to strangers, regardless of religious beliefs, reject racial exclusion or discrimination, recognize the dignity of every woman and man, and protect the migrants’ inalienable rights. They should be welcome by deeds more than words so that migrant families become part of the local community.

The Asian Church cares for migrant workers

Since the 1980’s, the Asian Church has been caring and serving migrants.  In December 1979, the International Congress on Mission, Manila, Philippines, called “to translate into deeds… the many statements of our concern for the poor and the suffering, the deprived and the oppressed of the earth.”

In 1982, the Third Bishops’ Institute for Missionary Apostolate (BIMA III) called for  “pastoral care for the great number of Asians who have emigrated from their homelands for economic reasons demands the serious missionary concern of the churches.”

In January 1992, Thailand, the Colloquium on the Social Doctrine of the Church in the Context of Asia statement “Walking Humbly, Acting Justly, Loving Tenderly in Asia” urged  “Christian communities as a matter of duty to strive for the improvement of working conditions and defend…. migrant workers from every form of exploitation”

In September 1993, FABC-Office of Human Development organized in Hong Kong the Filipino migrant workers in Asia a symposium which recognized migration for the improvement of quality of life is a human right. The Final Statement of the Symposium reflected “Laborem Exercens”, that migration should not be a forced choice, and should not result in the loss of human dignity. Moreover, the Symposium raised concern on the consequences of migration to family life.

In 1995, Final Statement of the Sixth FABC Plenary Assembly, Manila, Philippines, states their mission: “Special attention is given to the displaced in our societies: political and ecological refugees and migrant workers. They are marginalized and exploited by the system, denied of their place in society, and must go elsewhere to seek a dignified life. In welcoming them, we expose the causes of their displacement, work toward conditions for a more humane living in community, experience the universal dimensions of the Kingdom (Gal 3:28) and appreciate new opportunities for evangelization and intercultural dialogue.”

In February 1996, the Fourth East Asian Regional Laity Meeting in Thailand, entitled “The Role of the Laity in Human Development,” lay participants realized that one of their challenge is to listen to the voice and respond to the needs of migrants.

In 1998, the Synod of Bishops for Asia, recognized  migrants as beneficiaries of the mission of the Church: “Special attention must be paid to migrant workers. Millions of them leave their families to earn their livelihood in other countries. Pastoral care for them in their own ecclesial tradition is most necessary.”

 

Pastoral Care of Migrants

 

In 1992, the First Consultation for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Refugees in Asia was held in Manila, Philippines organized by the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, jointly with the FABC Office of Human Development and the Episcopal Commission for Migration and Tourism of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines.

In 1996, the Second Consultation for the pastoral care of migrants in Asia, noted the following development in Church action based on the first consultation’s recommendations:

  1. Anti-illegal recruitment campaign initiated in the Philippines;
  2. The start of “the formation of active and creative migrant communities through occasional missions,” lay leadership development and renewal of groups;
  3. The issuance of three or more collective pastoral statements of Bishops’ Conferences regarding state policy shifts on the refugee problem;
  4. The introduction of mini-courses on migration in some seminaries;
  5. The organization of the Ecumenical Watch Committee to pursue the campaign for the ratification of the UN International Convention on Migrants and Their Families; and
  6. The undertaking of steps towards the orderly exchange of clergy and pastoral workers between sending and receiving countries.

The Second Consultation observed changes in trends: Asian migrant workers’ were moving to East Asia; undocumented workers increasing; human trafficking worsen;  more women migrate for jobs. From 1996 to 2000, the Second Consultation priorities five areas of pastoral commitments:  labor migration, migrant women, refugees and internally displaced persons, the family, and human rights. The Second Consultation outlines the following strategies:

  1. Labor migration: continue to dialogue and negotiate with civil authorities for migrant – protective legislation, and ensure the enforcement of similarly-oriented existing laws;
    2. Migrant women: raise awareness among women regarding migration to morally-degrading jobs, and to offer shelter and counseling for those with abusive working conditions;
    3. Refugees and internally displaced persons: work for peace and reconciliation; facilitate the safe and dignified journey of returnees to their home countries, cooperate closely with NGOs, bilateral agencies, and the UNHCR; condemn the armaments industry;
    4. The family: promote family reunification, and lobby for policies that will allow for medium and long-term residence permits and provide care and education for children;
    5. Human rights: study and disseminate applicable human rights instruments on migrants, refugees and IDPS; call on governments to sign and ratify the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrants and Members of Their Families, the UN Convention on the Status of Refugees, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

 

Receiving Churches In Asia

 

The services offered by receiving church were largely pastoral and social. The Churches have shown that service to migrants and refugees is not blind to race or color.

 

Pastoral service: the celebration of masses, the dispensation of the sacraments, Bible studies, Marian devotion, novena masses, prayer meetings, and the holding of services for Advent or Lent, retreats and recollections, etc

 

Social Services: counseling, facilitated financial remittances, radio program, prison visits, legal assistance, aid repatriation in emergency cases, temporary shelter for those with pending labour/legal cases, hospital visits and health services, funeral services, recreation facilities and socialization venue during freedays.etc

Difficulties faced by the receiving church, for example in Singapore, 1987, several  lay persons working with the Justice and Peace commission, Young Christian Workers [YCW] organizing and serving migrant workers were arrested under the Internal Security Act [ISA]. It resulted in the migrant workers centre being closed. In the late 1990’s, the Archdiocese set-up the Commission for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itineant people.  Organizing and advocacy for migrant is beyond its mandate. More recently,  civil society organizations are beginning to advocate for workers rights .including migrants.

Problems faced by Migrants Workers’

 

Asia churches do try to provide pastoral and social care as much needs to be done in terms of  serving the various needs of the migrant workers especially through advocacy work to protect and promote the rights of migrant workers.

Migrant Workers issues:

  • Without legal status, susceptible to discrimination, low wages under abusive working conditions.
  • Increasing number of women migrant workers, susceptible to discrimination, low wage under abusive working conditions and sexual harassment.
  • human trafficking is link to irregular migration as migrant workers are moving for work. Receiving countries are restricting and reducing the unskilled workers, while  offering incentives to professional or skilled workers.
  • Most Asian states refusal to ratify the UN International Convention on All Migrants and the Members of Their Families, which was adopted in 1990. Four Asian states have ratified the instrument, namely the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and East Timor
  • Many Asian states have also refused to ratify the International Labor Organization (ILO) instruments that secure migrant workers’ rights:
  • ILO Convention No. 97 of 1949 (concerning Migration for Employment)
  • ILO Convention No. 143 of 1975 (concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and then Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers.)
  • Many Asian states have not the ratified of international human rights instruments as the principle, safeguard migrant workers’ rights:

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination,

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

  • social security benefits is a problem in most receiving countries

Migrant workers exploitation:

  • illegal recruitment, recruiters and brokers charge exorbitant fees, fake contracts, promises of non-existing jobs,
  • poor working and living conditions; limited duration of contracts, long working hours, and non-access to health and insurance benefits, unfair termination of services.
  • human organ smuggling syndicate, human trafficking, women being forced into prostitution,
  • punishments to illegal migrants are inhumane
  • Migrant workers are seen as economic “commodities”: sending countries and even families look at migrant workers in terms of dollar remittances.
  • sending countries see people as exported goods
  • sending countries have not provided welfare and protection their overseas workers.
  • receiving countries the migrants solve labour-shortage problem, performs the dirty, dangerous, and difficult jobs rejected by local and accepts low wage

Challenges For Migrant Workers’ Advocacy

 

The Church needs to address the above mentioned issues, through the social and pastoral plans, to be relevant and responsive to the needs of the migrant workers. Migration is a human right.

We need to better understand the causes of migration to overcome the root cause and not  only with the consequences of migration. While Churches of origin work to ensure justice in sending countries, they must join the receiving Churches in moving sociopolitical and economic structures that marginalize the majority who are poor in Asia.

 

Social advocacy is understood as an on-going process of influencing decision-makers with a commitment in the pursuit of truth and thus bring changes to social policy or to enforce laws or to repeal them if they violate norms of human rights. It is also a process of offering alternatives by enacting new laws and influencing behaviour and changes in lifestyle. The process of social advocacy thus begins with identifying the needs and rights of the disadvantaged in society, involving a comprehensive, in-depth social analysis and reflection, including faith analysis. It calls for justice and solidarity with the suffering, and works towards the creation of equitable power structures. The dimensions of social advocacy  includes awareness education and communication about issues and strategies for appropriate actions, such as, creating networks and alliances, techniques for monitoring and lobbying of decisions-makers, to organise public campaigns and actions. The creation of alternatives is indeed the greatest challenge for promoters of social advocacy.

 

The Asian Church’s support advocacy for migrant workers rights

  • Church to provide the necessary resources
  • The formation of pastoral workers and worker leaders for this social process

Advocacy for the Rights of Migrant Workers

 

  • The work for migrants is anchored on the dignity of the persons, regardless of his or her status. We need to support the Pope’s call for a “general amnesty for undocumented migrants.”
  • ensure respect for the dignity of irregular migrants through campaigns to ratify the UN Migrants Convention, and to appeal to the signatories of the Bangkok Declaration on Irregular Migration (April 1999), both call for a humane treatment of illegal migrants.
  • United Nations adopted the International Convention for the Protection of All Migrants and Their Families in 1990, came into force in July 2003. The Church has pushed for its ratification by states. The use of consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council as an opportunity to bring the urgency of ratifying the measure.
  • Remedies that will make states accountable for their acts towards migrant workers and their families: what universal human rights instruments, or International Labor Organization instruments have been acceded to by states in the region, and appeal to these accessions, when concerned states have not yet ratified the Migrants Convention.
  • We should advocate for migrant women’s rights as an expressed concern for women’s dignity and equality with men.
  • While advocating for wider adoption of international and national legal instruments to secure migrants’ rights, we should continue the social, pastoral and legal services etc.

 

Migrant Workers building the Kingdom of God

 

The mission of love and service to migrant workers is a call to solidarity.  It is building the Kingdom, where human dignity transcends territorial borders. The Church is in solidarity with the world of migrants.

Diocesan and National level

Work together with formative lay organisation that serves workers through capacity building and faith formation, training, conscience and responsible, to become aware and solve the problem; with the methodology of See-Judge-Act.

  • There has to be a focal point eg workers’ centre or person to provide information, counseling, spiritual care and legal advice for migrants
  • Migrants should be provided with pastoral, social and legal services.
  • Training and information to be disseminated to migrants workers on labour laws and rights so they do not become victims of abuse
  • The local community should become aware of the plight of its migrants and to welcome them.
  • Training in the seminaries and lay leaders provided with training and sensitized on migrant workers issue
  • Training of pastoral workers to serve migrants workers and send pastoral workers to serve migrant communities

Possible activities:

  • Networking with other NGOs and groups involved with migrants
  • use of internet for communication and exchange of information
  • training on advocacy work
  • campaigning for a country’s legislation aimed at changing abusive or discriminative laws and policies; implementation of the minimum and core labour standards
  • creating a public opinion that would support services in favour of migrant workers
  • Migration Day educate Church and society regarding migrant workers issues
  • Advocate for the ratification of the U.N. Conventions (on labour, immigrants) when these instruments have not yet been ratified by the countries concerned to provide for equal treatment for migrant workers in terms of jobs, wages, social security and union rights (ILO Conventions 97 and 143).
  • Pre-departure and Post-departure orientations programmes for Migrant workers, and reintegration programmes for workers returning to home country.

Regional level

  • Regional coordination for the protection of human rights and advocacy for the rights of migrant workers and their families
  • Promote awareness and information-sharing system ( Internet) on migration policy developments in ASEAN
  • Prepare advocacy initiatives regarding migrants rights, undocumented workers and in the trafficking of women
  • Network building with other migration NGOs within ASEAN to strengthen the service to migrant workers
  • Campaign for the ratification of the U.N. International Convention on the Rights of Migrants Workers and their Families
  • Inform human rights groups of the situation of migrants regarding family reunion, equality of treatment, the abuses of recruiting, confiscation of Passports, violation of contracts, workplace abuses, etc
  • Urgent Appeal Network with regional organisation like the Hotline-Asia [ACPP]
  • Monitoring and campaigning for a country’s legislation aimed at changing abusive or discriminative laws and policies;
  • Country campaigns on the situations of migrant workers in Thailand, Malaysia, Batam and Singapore to implement minimum and core labour standards; decent working and living conditions, living wage, right to be organized .etc

Regional dialogue and lobbying with ASEAN States
on the Implementation of the ASEAN Declaration of the protection and promotion of the rights of the migrant workers

  1. Sending and receiving states should have specific policies on recruitment agencies, agents and other related business to reduce abuse of potential migrant workers for example, false documents, false passports, unreasonable fees, etc At regional level countries should coordinate information and list offending agencies to facilitate identification and penalizing them;
  1. Both the sending and receiving states of migrant workers should establish agreed minimum standards on migrant rights and welfare, for example,  minimum wage, hours of work,  rest days, medical insurance, work safety,  re-trainings, regulation of recruitment agencies,  remove recruitment fees or set a minimum fee policy etc.
  1. ASEAN states and their partners should formulate and exchange information on migrant related policies and information;
  1. ASEAN states and their partners should identify and formulate policies on current and potential migration related issues.
  1. Receiving and sending states should be persuaded to ratify the 1990 UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.

 

Annex: 1 FABC Seventh  Plenary Assembly  Workshop 6 : A Mission of Love and

                     Service to Migrant Workers and Refugees

 

Annex: 2 Church Teachings on Labour

 

Reference:

  1. FABC Paper No. 921 Seventh Plenary Assembly: Workshop Discussion Guide. A Church In Universal Harmony And Solidarity Through Justice And Peace by Anthony Rogers FSC, January 3-12, 2000, Bangkok, Samphran, Thailand
  1. FABC Paper No. 92f Seventh Plenary Assembly: Workshop Discussion Guide. A Renewed Church In Asia: A Mission Of Love And Service To Migrant Workers And Refugees In The Third Millennium  by Jigger S. Latoza, January 3-12, 2000, Bangkok, Samphran, Thailand
  1. Major Church documents with specific references to migration include the Apostolic Constitution “Exsul Familia” (1952), Vatican II (1965), the Motu Proprio “De Pastolari Migratorum Cura” (1969), the Motu Proprio “Apostolicae Caritatis” (1970), which decreed the establishment of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, the Encyclical “Laborem Exercens” (1981), “Canon Law” (1983), the “Catechism of the Catholic Church” (1994), and the Motu Propio “Stella Maris” (1997).
  1. Statement of the Ecumenical Consultation on Social Advocacy Consultation jointly organised by Asia and Pacific Alliance of YMCAs, Christian Conference of Asia and the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences,  held on 4th – 8th October 2001, at the Redemptorist Centre, Pattaya, Thailand.
  1. ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the rights of migrant workers, 2007, workersconnection.org
  1. Task Force on ASEAN Migrant Workers, workersonnection.org

<VaticanⅡ, Ecological Crisis and Peace of Asia>, Seoul : WTI 2013